In all kinds of electronic systems of weapon equipment, electrical connectors are the basic components necessary to constitute a complete system.
In all kinds of military aircraft and weapon equipment, the amount of electric connectors is large, especially the amount of electric connectors used on aircraft is very large. Generally speaking, the use of an aircraft electrical connector can reach hundreds to thousands of pieces, involving tens of thousands of lines. Therefore, in addition to meeting the general performance requirements, it is particularly important that the electrical connector should achieve good contact, reliable work and convenient maintenance. The reliability of its work directly affects the normal operation of the aircraft circuit, which involves the safety of the whole host machine. For this reason, the host circuit has very strict requirements on the quality and reliability of electrical connectors, which is also widely used in aviation, aerospace, defense and other military systems due to the high quality and reliability of electrical connectors.
1. Classification and structure of electrical connectors
1. Commonly used connector classification methods are:
1) according to the shape: round electrical connector, rectangular electrical connector.
The circular electrical connector is the most used in military equipment (aerospace) due to its structural characteristics. Rectangular electrical connectors are more commonly used on printed circuit boards of electronic devices because of their simple structure.
2) by structure:
According to the connection method: thread connection, bayonet (fast) connection, lock connection, push-pull connection, straight plug connection, etc.
According to the contact end form: compression, welding, winding; Screw (cap) fixation;
According to environmental protection: environmental resistance electrical connectors and ordinary electrical connectors
3) by use:
Radio frequency electrical connector
Sealed electrical connector (glass sealing)
High temperature electrical connector
Automatic detached electrical connector
Composite electrical connector
Airport power connector
Printed circuit board electrical connector, etc. 2. The electrical connector is composed of a fixed end electric connector (hereinafter referred to as the socket) and a free end electric connector (hereinafter referred to as the plug). The socket is fixed to the electrical component by its side (round) disk (soldering is also used in some cases), the plug is usually connected to the cable, and the plug and socket are connected by connecting the nut.
The electric connector consists of three basic units: shell, insulator and contactor.
Case - electrical connector case refers to the plug socket shell, connecting nut, tail accessories. The function of the shell is to protect the internal parts of the electrical connector such as the insulator and contactor (commonly known as the pin jack) from damage. The positioning keyway above ensures the positioning of the plug and socket. The connecting nut is used for socket connection and separation. The tail attachment is used to protect the connection between the wire and the contact end from damage and to fix the cable. The shell also has a certain electromagnetic shielding effect.
The shell is generally made of aluminum alloy (machine plus, cold extrusion, die casting). Steel cases are mostly used for glass sealing welding and high temperature resistance electrical connectors.
Insulator - by mounting pin insulator, installing hole insulator. Interface sealing body, sealing body and other components. It is used to keep the pin hole in the set position and make electrical insulation between each contact body and between each contact body and shell body. To improve the environmental performance of electrical connectors, the sealing measures of insulators and interface seals are obtained.
In order to adapt to high temperature, low temperature and flame retardant, the geometric dimension of parts is stable and reliable. Thermal - solid plastic molding is used in most insulators. The interface sealing body and wire sealing body are formed by silicon rubber mould pressing. Contact-pin jack is the general term of contact body, which is divided into welding type, pressing type and winding type, etc., to realize circuit connection.
Pin jack is the key element of electric connector, which affects the reliability of electric connector directly. Most of the pin holes are made of flexible copper alloy materials with good electrical conductivity, and silver plating and gold plating are adopted to achieve the purpose of low contact resistance and corrosion prevention.
The features of the structure are: environment resistance, bayonet (fast) connection, multi-key (error-proof) connection, contactor and conductor pressure connection, (single root delivery is convenient for fault treatment). Shell and shield ring 360 ° electromagnetic interference shielding capacity.